Monday, February 24, 2020
Does Audit Regulation Ensure Auditor Independence - Dissertation Example Unlike the legal representatives, he is not projected to make out a case. The nature of the service he provides is impersonal (Sells, 1908). Near the beginning of 1928, a perspective in the Paper of Accountancy emphasized the subsistence of a clash of interest when an auditor is a stockowner, executive, or leader of the association. It declared: The accountant should be absolutely detached from financial or other contribution in the success or failure of an activity under audit that no one could ever point an indicting finger, however unfairly, and allege the likelihood of bias (Journal of Accountancy, 1928). Carey and Doherty (1966) arose with three different views of auditor independence: First, in the logic of not being subsidiary, it means candour, veracity, objectivity and dependability. Subsequent, in the constricted sense in which it is exercised in association with auditing and articulation of views on economic proclamations, independence means evasion of any affiliation that would be probably, even unintentionally, to spoil the chartered accountant's independence as reviewer. Last of all, it means evasion of associations that to a sensible onlooker would advise an argument of interest. The auditing line of work has come under regular analysis regarding the auditor's perceived objectivity: In 1970, Forbes brought out editorial inquiring auditor independence by hoisting the following: As auditors are chosen and remunerated by management, are they really independent (Forbes, 1970). In 1974, the Wall Street Journal issued one more editorial in which an investor condemned a $1.6 million lend by the bank to the firm's... This study looks into the importance of auditor independence was acknowledged by the UK in 1845. Most states have copied the UK track in entailing that independent auditors review economic reports. Most nations view auditor independence not just as an officially authorized precept but also an ethical affair to deem with. Most rules of moral code prescribe arguments of importance by not: allowing the auditor to work as director or member of staff of the firm audited; acting as a commercial trustee of the firm audited, admitting or warranting loans from or to an audit customer, having a straight or circuitous matter interest in the firm audited, imagining operating tasks, having family rapport with the audit customer, or being in positions in which auditor independence is deduced to be weakened. As the access to the UK into the European General Market (EEC) and the ratification of the Eighth Company Law Directive on auditor's credentials, the European nations are publicizing themselves with the American thought of auditor independence. Some opponents think, however, those cultural discrepancies among European nations make the perception of auditor independence a type of casement dressing. According to the research findings, this paper makes a conclusion that this may be the motive that directed the International Audit Committee of the International Federation of Accounting to permit the local governments' agreement with issues of auditor independence and other correlated issues.
Friday, February 7, 2020
The Logic behind Islamic Intolerance - Essay Example According to me, this is an absurd way of living, for any person who believes in religion and its power. If all religions claim to be the truth, then it is basically one belief against another one and hence rules out the name truth in any religion. I think people should believe what they want and have no reason to interfere with what any other person believes in which in most cases could be different. Quoting Osama Bin Laden by nature is an okay point to bring to justify Islamic logic on intolerance. Ã¢â¬Å"Battle animosity and hatred directed from Muslim to the infidel is the foundation of religion. And we consider this a justice and kindness to themÃ¢â¬ is a quote made by Osama which somehow works for most IslamÃ¢â¬â¢s and is supported by millions of Muslims. That their anger and fight on people who do not believe in Allah is a good way to show justice to them, by perhaps killing them is okay. The quote was simply unnecessary for this article. It stirs anger on now Islam's and also portrays the arrogance with which Islam who believe in the quote has. In conclusion, this article definitely claims the lack of hope in the near future for dialogues between leaders of faith for a good cause which is peace. The author, Raymond sees no hope because of the strong beliefs IslamÃ¢â¬â¢s have and the lack of seriousness that Westerners view religion. The ability to reach an agreement if people will stop discussing religion and perhaps see to it that peace is restored and everyone can have the freedom to do as they please.
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Scientific method Essay Summary paragraph introducing the project, building, hypothesis, highlights of findings. concise brief of the parts to the case study. Introduction Description of building, background information, designerÃ¢â¬â¢s intent, observations, and how team decided on topic. selection of an interesting or challenging building; relevant issues to current building performance topics that address energy-use and conservation and/or occupant well-being and associated topics covered during the Fall term. Hypothesis / Inquiry Questions. A question converted to a statement that can be tested, deals with one relevant topic, and has only one clause. suitability in scope and context to the case study building; testable and well-framed statement linking design intent to performance topic. Significance in going beyond the mundane. Methods / Equipment Step-by-step procedure that explains how, who, what, where and details of the collection of information. innovative utilization of field methods which are well-matched to the hypothes(es) and based upon direct experience with the selected building; appropriate approach and use of equipment for this case study. Data / Analysis Collection of data and explanation and interpretation of the results. effective communication and analysis of results in response to the research questions; this may include creative or unique ways of representing data; Conclusions / Design Lessons Learned Concise statements of key findings and what was learned. understanding of the complexities and variables of the project. appropriateness of concluding statements suggestions for studies to build upon this case study. Web Design ease and logic of navigation; readability and clarity; creativity in using the web to enhance the representation of data. appropriate attribution, acknowledgement, etc. A =demonstrates meeting the objectives and criteria above; serves as a useful model of information for the design community. B =demonstrates meeting the objectives and criteria above C =meets several of the objectives and criteria above, is deficient in areas. D =does not demonstrate meeting the objectives and criteria above Evaluation Procedures. The following process enables us to give a fair and objective review to each of the case study projects, according to the objectives and criteria set forth in the assignment. 1. Instructors will review an initial set of selected case studies together and assign letter grades (see below) for content and web design according to the criteria above. As a group, we will discuss the merits and deficiencies and come to agreement on the final content and web grade, by consensus or averaging the grades. Comments and grades will be entered into a master spreadsheet (which contains team names, email addresses, GTF, title) which will facilitate sending feedback to the teams and provide a master document should students come in to talk to us later. 2. For efficiency of time and because of the number of case studies, we will break into grading teams (one instructor, two GTFs) and use the same process to evaluate the rest of the case studies. Adjustments and re-calibration of grades can occur as we progress through the grading process. The instructors may float between teams. 3. Presentation grades from the instructor and GTF will be entered into the master spreadsheet. 4. Generally, GTFs will not be on a team grading their own studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ case studies. They can be however, consulted to ask about the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s initiative and general performance. GTFs should review the grades with the grading team. 5. All instructors will Ã¢â¬Å"voteÃ¢â¬ for case studies to be place in the Hall of Fame (4-5 total). Once these have been selected we will notify them after grades have been submitted and case study files can be posted to the Hall of Fame site. (this may be early winter term).
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Hawthorne's Puritanical Beliefs Revealed in The Scarlett Letter and Young Goodman Brown When an author depicts a person or group of people in his or her work, the opinion of the writer most often sifts into the descriptions, whether intentionally or unintentionally. Some writers are very guarded regarding their feelings toward any particular subject, while others are very open and happy to share. Nathaniel Hawthorne belongs to the latter group. The purpose of the majority of his literary work was to share his view of the group of strict Christians known as the Puritans. Hawthorne himself was a direct descendent of Puritans, and he obviously held very particular views of his ancestors. These views are clearly demonstrated in his works The Scarlett Letter and "Young Goodman Brown," in which Hawthorne shows his disdain for the judgement and hypocrisy that was a daily practice of the Puritan church. In the New Testament of the Holy Bible, Matthew wrote in the Gospel of Matthew, Chapter Seven, Verse 1, "Judge not, that you be not judged." This is an often quoted verse of scripture that has been the subject of countless sermons and has been the chastisement to even more Christians. The Puritans, without a doubt, had this verse branded on their hearts, and yet, according to the works of Hawthorne, never practiced the Bible that they quoted so frequently. His disdain toward them and the judgement that they inflict on others, as well as the hypocrisy that they are immersed in from the time of birth. In the second chapter of The Scarlett Letter, Hawthorne shows the reader both the judgement and hypocrisy of a small part of the society - the women. As they wait for the arrival of Hester Prynne, this town's resident adulteress, they... ...n authors Anne Bradstreet and Edward Taylor. Perhaps, had Hawthorne studied these two writers, he may have discovered the bit of beauty that is hiding in stoic Puritanism. Works Cited Baym, Nina. The Norton Anthology of American Literature vol. I. New York: Norton and Co., 1998. McKeithan, D. M. "Hawthorne's 'Young Goodman Brown': An Interpretation." Modern Language Notes (1952): 93-96. Reprinted in Short Story Criticism vol. 29. "A Review of The Scarlet Letter." Littell's Living Age (1850): 203-207. Reprinted in Nineteenth Century Literary Criticism vol.10. Duyckinck, E.A. "Nathaniel Hawthorne." The Literary World (1850): 323-325. Reprinted in Nineteenth Century Literary Criticism vol.10. Macy, John. "Hawthorne." The Spirit of American Literature (1913): 77-96. Reprinted in Nineteenth Century Literary Criticism vol.10.
Monday, January 13, 2020
1.0 INTRODUCTION All human cultures tell stories about the past, deeds of ancestors, heroes, gods, or animals. Songs sacred to particular peoples were chanted and memorized long before there was any writing with which to record them. Their truth was authenticated by the very fact of their continued repetition. History which can be considered as an account that purports to be true of events and ways of thinking and feeling in some part of the human past stems from this archetypal human narrative activity. While sharing a common ancestry with myth, legend, epic poetry, and the novel, history has of course diverged from these forms. Its claim to truth is based in part on the fact that all the persons or events it describes really existed or occurred at some time in the past. Historians can say nothing about these persons or events that cannot be supported, or at least suggested, by some kind of documentary evidence. Such evidence customarily takes the form of something written, such as a letter, a law, an administrative record, or the account of some previous historian. In addition, historians sometimes create their own evidence by interviewing people. In the 20th century, the scope of historical evidence was greatly expanded to include, inter alia, aerial photographs, clothes, motion pictures, and houses etc. Furthermore, all developed countries have their National Archives. This is in recognition of the simple fact that knowledge of the past is essential to society. What happens in the present, and what will happen in the future, is very much governed by what happened in the past. Without a thorough knowledge of past events and circumstances, we could not even attempt to grapple with these problems. Without knowledge of the past we would be without identity, we would be lost on an endless sea of time. However, it is obvious that knowledge of the past has not brought easy solutions to problems in, say, Nigeria, Mali, Zimbabwe, Palestine or even other parts of the world. Notwithstanding the fact that history is paramount in any society and in fact a necessary ingredient for its growth, but many practical facts staring us at the face have shown that people learn fromÃ history that they do not learn from history. Thus, I would like to support and defend the assertion that Ã¢â¬Ëhistory teaches us that history teaches nothingÃ¢â¬â¢. But before delving into this argumentative cum intellectual excursus, I would like to clarify the term Ã¢â¬ËHistoryÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËWhy people study historyÃ¢â¬â¢ 2.0 WHAT IS HISTORY? Etymologically, the term Ã¢â¬ËhistoryÃ¢â¬â¢ is from the Greek word Ã¢â¬ËÃ¡ ¼ ±ÃÆ'ÃâÃ ¿Ã Ã ¯Ã ±Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â historia, meaning Ã¢â¬Å"inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigationÃ¢â¬ . It was still in this Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about Ã¢â¬Å"Natural HistoryÃ¢â¬ . For him, history is Ã¢â¬Å"the knowledge of objects determined by space and timeÃ¢â¬ . History is the study of the past, specifically how it relates to humans. It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians whereas the events occurring prior to written record were considered prehistory. By Ã¢â¬Å"prehistoryÃ¢â¬ , historians mean the recovery of knowledge of the past in an area where no written records exist, or where the writing of a culture is not understood. By studying painti ng, drawings, carvings, and other artefacts, some information can be recovered even in the absence of a written record. Since the 20th century, the study of prehistory is considered essential to avoid historyÃ¢â¬â¢s implicit exclusion of certain civilizations, such as those of Sub-Saharan Africa and pre-Columbian America. In 1961, British historian E. H. Carr wrote; Ã¢â¬Ëthe line of demarcation between prehistoric and historical times is crossed when people cease to live only in the present, and become consciously interested both in their past and in their future. History begins with the handing down of tradition; and tradition means the carrying of the habits and lessons of the past into the future. Records of the past begin to be kept for the benefit of future generationsÃ¢â¬â¢1 Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484 BC Ã¢â¬â 425 BC) has generally been acclaimed as the Ã¢â¬Å"father of historyÃ¢â¬ . However, his contemporary Thucydides (460 BC Ã¢â¬â 400 BC) is credited with having first approached history with a well-developed historical method in his work Ã¢â¬Ëthe History of the Peloponnesian WarÃ¢â¬â¢. In his historical method, Thucydides emphasized chronology, a neutral point of view, and that the human world wasÃ the result of the actions of human beings. Greek historians also viewed history as cyclical, with events regularly recurring. Suffice to say that the word Ã¢â¬ËhistoryÃ¢â¬â¢ entered the English language in 1390 with the meaning of Ã¢â¬Å"relation of incidents or storyÃ¢â¬ . Professor Richard J. Evans defines histo ry as an academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. According to Professor Arthur Marwick in his article titled Ã¢â¬ËThe Fundamentals of HistoryÃ¢â¬â¢, history is Ã¢â¬Ëthe bodies of knowledge about the past produced by historians, together with everything that is involved in the production, communication of, and teaching about that knowledgeÃ¢â¬â¢.3 In E. H. CarrÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËWhat Is History? Carr draws on sources from Nietzsche to Herodotus to argue for a more subtle definition of history as Ã¢â¬Ëan unending dialogue between the present and the pastÃ¢â¬â¢.4 No wonder, Whitney says that history is facilitated by the formation of a Ã¢â¬Ëtrue discourse of pastÃ¢â¬â¢5 through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race. History is the analysis and interpretation of the human past that enables us to study continuity and change over time. It is an act of both investigation and imagination that seeks to explain how people have changed over time. Historians use all forms of evidence t o examine, interpret, revisit, and reinterpret the past. These include not just written documents, but also oral communication and objects such as buildings, artefacts, photographs, and paintings. Historians are trained in the methods of discovering and evaluating these sources, and the challenging task of making historical sense out of them, that is to say they are aesthetically disinterested in their approach to events. According to Encarta electronic dictionary, history is Ã¢â¬Ëa chronological account of past events, it is the branch of knowledge that records and analyses past eventsÃ¢â¬â¢6. More so, Encyclopaedia Britannica defines history as Ã¢â¬Ëthe discipline that studies the chronological record of events (as affecting a nation or people), based on a critical examination of source materials and usually presenting an explanation of their causesÃ¢â¬â¢7. Understanding why historic events took place is important. To do this, historians often turn to geography. Weather patterns, the water supply, and the landscape of a place all affect the lives of the people whoÃ live there. For example, to explain why the ancient Egyptians developed a successful civilization, st udying the geography of Egypt is essential. At this juncture, it is paramount to say that the writing of history, especially the writing of history based on the critical examination of sources, the selection of particular details from the authentic materials in those sources, and the synthesis of those details into a narrative that stands the test of critical examination is known as Historiography. 3.0 WHY THEN DO PEOPLE STUDY HISTORY? From my own personal observation, it does occur to me that people explore the field of history for myriads of reasons which are: History is a means to understand the past and present. The different interpretations of the past allow us to see the present differently and therefore imagine and work towards the future. Through the study of history we can investigate and interpret why society developed as it has and determine what influences have affected the past and present and shape the future. It helps one to understand the immense complexity of our world and provides insights to help cope with the problems and possibilities of the present and future. History also provides a sense of identity to understand the collective past that has made us what we are today. The way in which people identify and interact with one another is by and large a consequence of history, which shapes and conditions individuals and societies whether they fully understand it or not, relationship between differ ent ethnic groups in Nigeria can testify clearly to this. History is also a bridge to other disciplines. In order to understand the other humanities and sciences one needs a historical overview. Writers, artists, scientists, politicians, philosophers etc. are all conditioned by the historical milieu in which they lived. Historical knowledge is a prerequisite for understanding the world in which we live. History is magister vitae, Ã¢â¬Å"teacher of life.Ã¢â¬ History prepares us to live more humanely in the present and to meet the challenges of the future because it provides us with understanding of the human condition. Despite these reasons why people study history, it becomes disheartening to see that these reasons do not readily translate into practice considering what is on ground in theÃ world. Hence, one can say without any fear of equivocation or ambiguity that Ã¢â¬Ëhistory teaches us that history teaches nothingÃ¢â¬â¢. To explicate this standpoint further, I would like to delineate in a jiffy the essential factors to be consi dered in history, from there I would showcase why history teaches us that history teaches nothing. 3.1 ESSENTIAL FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHY STUDYING HISTORY These are; Persons, ( personal element ), Time element, Event, Place, Circumstance, PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction or Effects, Post Reactions and the Lessons. It is from the standpoint of lessons meant to be learnt from history that I would defend the assertion that Ã¢â¬Ëhistory teaches us that history teaches nothingÃ¢â¬â¢. 4.0 HISTORY TEACHES US THAT HISTORY TEACHES NOTHING: USING NIGERIA AS A CASE STUDY. Having explained the concept of history and why we study history, the problems that stare us at face are; how has the knowledge of the past positively influenced the present day society? To what extent is the history affecting the lives of people? Why is it that people, nations, continents etc. repeat the same mistake of the past? Does it mean that history has no positive influence on human development or that people have blatantly refused to learn from history? No wonder the prestigious German Philosopher, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in his lectures on the philosophy of history said; Ã¢â¬Å"What experience and history teaches us is that people and governments have never learned anything from history, or acted on principles deduced from itÃ¢â¬ ¦ We learn from history that we do not learn from historyÃ¢â¬ ¦ [Hence] History teaches that history teaches us nothing. If we go on to cast a look at the f ate of the world historical personalitiesÃ¢â¬ ¦ we shall find it to have been no happy one. They attained no calm enjoyment; their whole nature was labour and trouble; their whole nature was nothing but their masterÃ¢â¬â¢s passion. When their object is attained they fall off like empty hulls from the kernelÃ¢â¬ To expatiate on this assertion that history teaches us that history teaches nothing, I would like to use Nigeria as a case study because I am more familiar with Nigerian history. Before delving into this intellectual discuss, I would like to posit certain questions: What is the percentage of Nigerians that are productively engaged? How many of them canÃ pay their bills? Education is one factor that can lift the fortunes of a nation overnight: as it is today, what is the percentage of the population that attain school till tertiary institution? What percentage of the population can afford the fees for their education? What has the government done to entrenched unity rather than ethnicity? Why has the government being unable to address these nagging issues? The most suitable answer to these interrogatives is that the government has failed to learn from history. In fact, the history of Nigeria has taught nothing to the government of this country considering what is on ground. The blame is mostly shifted to the government because as Achebe wrote in his book, Ã¢â¬ËThe Trouble with NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢, the problem of Nigeria is that of leadership. Let me succinctly delineate and expatiate on this assertion that history teaches us that history teaches nothing with some major events that have taken place in Nigeria. To be more precise, I hold the opinion that we have been stagnant in a lot of ways, we have degenerated in so many more ways while very little, if any progress, has been made in our march to meaningful nationhood. A key reason for our lacklustre performance at nation-building as Soyinka prescribes in the Dance of the Forest is the failure to draw lessons from the past at every turn in our history. That is an enterprise in which Nigeria still fails woefully. Hear what I read in one of the National Dailies that Chief Obafemi Awolowo, one of the active participants in the move towards independence, said in a speech he delivered on the floor of the House of Representatives in Lagos on March 31, 1953; Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦It has been customary for our friends from the North to threaten the rest of Nigeria with secession if this is done or if that is not doneÃ¢â¬ ¦ We find the northern majority is not only being used (by the colonialists, I presume) in having their way, but it is also being used in preventing the minority from having their sayÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Such was the suspicion and distrust that existed amongst major ethnic nationalities in the country at the attainment of independence. This suspicion eventually led to many coups like that of; 15th January 1966 Nigeria Major Kaduna Nzeogwu which led to the death of many including Alhaji Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, the then prime minister, 29th July 1966, a bloody coup led by Col. Yakubu Gowon, whichÃ claimed the life of Major General JTU Aguyi Ironsi and many others, 29th July 1975, by General Murtala Mohammed against General Yakubu Gowon and was successful, 13th February 1976, by Col. Dinka which resulted to the death of the then Head of State, General Murtala Mohammed, 31st December 1983, by Major General Ibrahim B. Buhari against Alhaji Shehu Shagari took place and was successful, 27th August 1985, by Major General Ibrahim B. Babangida against General Buhari. This suspicion also led to the civil war in which millions of lives were lost. Now, has Nigeria learnt anything from these? I think, NO. This is because, fifty three years old, national integration is still abysmal in Nigeria. There are verbal missiles across the country by individuals who desire to promote the interest of their ethnic groups, all of them fanning the embers of strife and war. Ethnic militias exist in almost different parts of the country threatening the lives and existence of those who do not share their ethnic or religious pedigree. Many Nigerians especially Southerners have lost their lives due to Boko Haram insurgency. This was a kind of situation which made Ojukwu to declare the Republic of Biafra due the massacre of the Igbos in the North. This declaration later led to civil war. We have even seen the Ã¢â¬Å"deportationÃ¢â¬ of hapless Nigerians from one state to the other and the attendant emotional outbursts that followed it. In fact, Nigeria has failed woefully to learn from history because the lessons of history are never applied to better the life of her citizenry. At the moment, seven gov ernors elected on the platform of the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Democratic Party (PDP) are on do or die mission to get a politician of northern extraction into the office of president come 2015. To them, it does not matter that the north had held that position for 37 out of NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s 53 years of independence, and that the region in particular and the nation in general, has nothing to show for it, all they are interested in is that the next President is from the North. To drive home the urgency of their desire, some of their supporters have actually threatened that Nigeria would be history if this pet project failed. Are these politicians unable to learn from history that born to rule mentality is a cankerworm that has threatened the fabrics of nationhood? Legendary writer, Chinua Achebe in his celebrated book, The Trouble with Nigeria once said: Ã¢â¬Å"But whereas tribalism might winÃ enough votes to install a reactionary jingoist in a tribal ghetto, the cult of mediocrity will bring the wheels of modernisation grinding to a halt throughout the landÃ¢â¬ That is the state of affairs in Nigeria currently. It is as bad as for past and present leaders in the country to brazenly tell the world that NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s major challenge is the lack of honest and dedicated leadership even as none of them has the nobility to plead guilty of the charge. This plague of bad leadership accounts for the frustrating level of ineptitude that we have in all areas of our national life. It seems to me that a cloud of cluelessness has descended on Nigeria over the years. Corruption in particular is one vice in which Nigeria has grown in leaps and bounds over the years. If there were pockets of corrupt practices in the country at the attainment of independence, Nigeria has within the last 53 years grown corruption to the extent that it has literarily acquired a life of its own. This has almost brought the nation to its knees with the resultant collapse of the middle class and the gap between the rich and the poor widening by the day. This means that Nigerian leaders in all sectors of life have failed to learn from history that corruptive practices retard the development of a nation and the excessive gap between the rich and poor can make the poor people to start a revolt against the rich. More still, agriculture which was the mainstay of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy up until the end of the First Republic has taken the back burner no thanks to the seeming ease with which petro-dollars have come to us since the oil boom in the 1970s. As NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s oil prospect increased, political leaders found more money to siphon or launder even as they neglect to sustain the structures which made life meaningful for the citizenry. Today, life is almost unbearable for the average Nigerian. Nigerian leaders seem to forget that it was this kind of atmosphere that ushered in the French revolution. Nigeria has not learnt from history. Hence, from this exposition of Nigerian experience, I continue to maintain that history teaches us that history teaches nothing because people have failed to learn from the lessons of history. 5.0 EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION Some may tend to argue that defending the idea that history teaches us that history teaches nothing is already affirming that history teaches somethingÃ because being aware that history teaches nothing is already learning something from history. Remember, the premise of my argument is that history teaches us that history teaches nothing, put in another way; we learn from history that we do not learn from history. This points to the fact that people and nations have failed woefully to apply the lessons of history to promote human well-fare. Thus, Hegel is right when he maintained that we learn very little from history in a global sense. Therefore, history teaches us nothing if we fail to observe the past, ask appropriate questions and learn from the lessons of history. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 Carr, Edward H. (1961). What is History? p.108 2 Evans, Richard J. Ã¢â¬Å"The Two Faces of E.H. CarrÃ¢â¬ . History In Focus. An article published by Palgrave, 2001. 3 Marwick, Arthur Ã¢â¬ËThe Nature of HistoryÃ¢â¬â¢ The MacMillian Press LTD. pg. 169, 1970. 4 Professor Arthur Marwick in his article titled Ã¢â¬ËThe Fundamentals of HistoryÃ¢â¬â¢ In E. H. CarrÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËWhat Is History? 5 Whitney, W. D. The Century dictionary; an encyclopaedic lexicon of English language. New York: The Century Co, 1889. 6 Encarta Microsoft Electronic Dictionary 2010 edition 7 EncyclopÃ ¦dia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: EncyclopÃ ¦dia Britannica, 2011. 8 HegelÃ¢â¬â¢s Lectures on Philosophy of History which was assessed online on the 3rd of November, 2013. 9 Achebe, Chinua. The Trouble with Nigeria, Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishing. Co. Ltd.Reprinted 1998. Print.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Autism Spectrum Disorder affects various aspects of an autistic childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Many children are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder every year, while others go undiagnosed for an extended time, or even for their whole life. A child exhibiting delays in language benchmarks or showing little interest in the surroundings should be examined for possible ASD. Language is often impaired and although the level of impairment can range from severe too unnoticeable in each child, a child is likely to have a delay in another area, like coordination of motor skills, if not in language. Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that causes impairments in various aspects of language development. Autism affects many children each year and it is important for parents to be aware of delays in their childÃ¢â¬â¢s development, in in any area of communication. According to a study by the Kennedy Krieger InstituteÃ¢â¬â¢s Center for Autism and Related Disorders, autistic children possessing a language difficulty or delay have a seventy percent chance of showing fluent speech by the age of eight (Ã¢â¬Å"SpeechÃ¢â¬ ). Although a child shows delay or impairment in language at a young age, it is possible for them to later on exhibit normal language development. Parents should be aware of normal language benchmarks, such as when a child begins babbling, imitating verbally, and using spoken and first words. If a child is lacking skills normally possessed by typically developing children, having said childShow MoreRelatedAutism Spectrum Disorder And Autism Essay1393 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAutism is a neurological disorder with many forms and severities, better known as autism spectrum disorder, that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Autism spectrum disorder is defined as developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges (CDC). Previously, autism was recognized in distinct groups and types. Now, autism is referred to as a spectrum because there is an overlap among all the different forms of autismRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder And Autism2594 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesAutism Spectrum Disorder is defined as a neurodevelopmental condition that is classified by a triad of impairments. These impairments are in communication, socialization, and repetitive patterns of behavior (Wolf, 2004). Autism affects about 1% of the current population (Shishido, Branko, Norio, 2013). This disorder seems like a common diagnosis in the current day in age but the disorder was only discovered around sixty years ago. The two founding researchers that discovered the disorder are KannerRead Mor eAutism Spectrum Disorder And Autism1827 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesin the United States had one or more developmental disorders in 2006-2008. This can affect the person mentally, physically, emotionally, or a combination of the three. These range from something as simple as a speech delay to something as complex as cerebral palsy. One of these developmental disorders is autism. Autism can cause social, communication, and behavioral challenges. One in 68 children are affected by autism. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is 4.5 times more common in boys. One in forty-twoRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder ( Autism ) Essay1739 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesconventions (Lai, 2014). These two observations would be the beginning of a disorder known as the Autism Spectrum Disorder. This developmental disorder, characterized by a range of deficits in different areas, is increasingly prevalent in society and in the media. While the exact numbers vary from country to country, according to Lai (2014), 1% of th e general population is diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. The range of this disorder has a detrimental effect on society, specifically the educationalRead MoreAutism And Autism Spectrum Disorder1267 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages and the way he interacted with others, spoke to me on a profound level. I know autism when I see it. For those not familiar with autism, Autism Speaks, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading autism science and advocacy organization, defines autism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as both general terms for a group of complex disorders of brain development. These disorders are characterized, in varying degrees (hence, a Ã¢â¬Å"SpectrumÃ¢â¬ that includes both low- and high-functioning individuals), by difficulties in socialRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder And Autism1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn America about one out of 88 children have autism spectrum disorder and about 36,500 in four million children are born with autism. Currently approximately 1.5 million adults are living with autism in the United States. The autistic brain is a complicated phenomenon, which has required many years of research in the biomedical field by institutes, organizations, and the government to comprehend the disorder. Depending on the severity of the disorder Ã¢â¬â low functionin g or high functioning Ã¢â¬â and theRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder And Autism Essay2049 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Autism and AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s are two syndromes that are now looked as being part of the Ã¢â¬ËAutism Spectrum DisorderÃ¢â¬â¢. AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s is on the high functioning end while Autism is on the low functioning end. Before the Ã¢â¬Ëautism spectrumÃ¢â¬â¢ was created, in nineteen forty-three and nineteen forty-four, a psychiatrist named Leo Kanner and German scientist named Hans Asperger discovered Autism and AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s. Their research included looking at cases of children who were different and had qualities of aloneness, obsessivenessRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder1446 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPublic Health Problem Autism or autism spectrum disorder ( ASD) is a developmental disorder that has been found world wide. However unlike many other disorders, autism is fairly new in the sense that there is no cure nor a set factor causing it. Today, the public is more aware of the disorder, yet there is still concern about how to treat autism in children as well as what risk factors are more likely to lead to autism. Autism has been around for the past hundred years, however previous to theRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder1409 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesboys and 1 in 189 girls are diagnosed with autism in the United States (Autism Speaks, n.d.). Can be diagnosed in all racial and ethnic groups, as well as every age group. In the 2013 publication of DSM-5 diagnostic manual, Asperger syndrome, Autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder- not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) were merged into one category of ASD. This paper will explain what Autism Spectrum Disorder is, causes, signs and symptoms, diagnosisRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder1278 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStatistical evidences. ASDÃ¢â¬â¢s gender proportion suggests that the autism is sex-linked, and the statistical evidence convincingly shows that genetic factors are playing key role in the prevalence of ASD. To begin with, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published the relationship between the number of autistic boys and girls. The statistical evidence shows that boys are more inclined to become autistic than girls. CDC states that 1 in 42
Friday, December 27, 2019
The Motherboard makes everything work inside the computer. It controls all of the other components inside the computer. Without it the computer wouldn t function as everything is attached to the motherboard. The motherboard is designed around the type of CPU that it will be used with. Because the motherboard is a base for all the components, the amount of slots need to be checked before before building the computer. The CPU is the brains of the computer and takes commands and completes them . CPUÃ¢â¬â¢s can only work with certain motherboards. They are connected via the CPU socket to the motherboard, on the pin side and is then clipped in. CPUÃ¢â¬â¢s have a heat sink and a fan to keep them from overheating. The CPU is what makes the whole computer function, so the better central processing unit you have, the faster your computer. Nearly every computer will have a heatsink and fan to keep the processor cool and to prevent it from overheating. If the processor is running at full capacity then the heatsink itself can start to overheat which will make the computer very hot which can damage it. This is why there is also a fan to keep everything cool, and does this by blowing cool air through the computer. Also most computers will have a thermometer to keep an eye on the temperature and if the temperature gets too high then the fan will speed up to try and maintain a lower temperature. The power supply is what gives any computer the ability to work. It takes power from an electricalShow MoreRelatedKey Components Of A Computer Essay1045 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA computer is a system of parts that work and interconnect with each other. When it comes to the number of items that make up a computer it comes down to one number, Seven. There are seven key components that a computer is made of. Starting with what holds all the parts, part number one is the case. Your computer would be just a pile of parts and wires without it. The second important component is the power supply. The power supply is what brings your computer and its components to life. The nextRead MoreMain Purpose of Liquid Crystal Display/Flat Panel Monitors956 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescrystal display. LCD technology can be found in computer monitors. LCD displayer is the monitor; the main purpose of a monitor in a computer system is to show text and graphics, which are generated by the computer. The LCD monitor is connected by a cable. One side of the cable is plugged into the back of the monitor and the other side of the cable is plugged into the hard drive cable port. Computer case- A computer case is also known as a computer chassis, system unit, base unit or simply just aRead MoreEssay On How To Organize Your Work926 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPlan an Organize Your Work When planning and organizing your work itÃ¢â¬â¢s imperative to have a large area where you will be able to lay out all the parts and not lose anything. Additionally, it would be helpful to lay out all necessary tools that will be used in disassembly and reassembly to include: wire cutters, zip ties, different size phillips-head and flat-head screw drivers. Plan a sequence that will be simple to get into the case without having to reach around parts, causing frustration. ExamineRead MoreThanks to the Internet, Computers are Mainstream1699 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesComputers have become a mainstream phenomenon, thanks to the spread of the internet. Most homes around the world now have some sort of Internet connection. As more and more people use computers, the overall interest for them grows. Anyone who wants to learn more about computers and gain experience has several options, and one of the best is to build your own. Since youÃ¢â¬â¢ve spent a lot of money on components, its important to be well prepared when building a computer you dont want anything to goRead MorePreparing A Computer Lab Report2142 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesTo begin building your computer it is best to have a large flat surface to work on, such as a desk, table, or wide countertop. You should stay away from carpeted rooms as well, because this increased the likelihood of static buildup. Before you begin touching components of the computer to install them into the computer case you should put on your antistatic wrist strap. This antistatic wrist strap is go prevent any static built up on your hands from damaging the computer components, as they areRead MoreBuilding A Computer And The Computer1222 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBuilding a computer When people hear that some people build their own computer, they automatically decide that it must be some very challenging task that requires a wizard of all things electronic. I will demonstrate otherwise, by starting with what parts to purchase for a good computer tailored to what is being planned on being done with it. Be it playing games, video-editing, or just simple internet browsing. Moving onward to an almost as essential step as putting it together: what tools are goingRead MoreElectronic Computers And Their Components849 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesElectronic computers and their components are very complicated pieces of hardware and would be impossible to completely explain every single intricacy in one essay. Although complicated they can be explained but only one piece of hardware at a time so the best option to start would be explaining the unit that has its hand in everything in a computer and that is known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Central Processing UnitÃ¢â¬ also known as Ã¢â¬Å"CP U.Ã¢â¬ In a modern computer are 6 main components that are required for a computer to workRead MoreHard Disks Essay701 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesslowly being taken over by a newer way to store data known as an SSD or Flash storage and what it does is this. Ã¢â¬Å"Flash storage is made with chips (no moving parts) and is gradually replacing spinning hard drives like this. Flash chips are whats inside camera SDHC memory cards and USB storage keys.Ã¢â¬ (1) Now im going to go back in time to when the first hard drives started to come out and I think Marshall Brain said this best in his article about Hard DisksÃ¢â¬Å"Hard disks were invented in the 1950sRead MoreInstalling A Room Average Temperature1254 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCleaning your computer, components, and peripherals help keep everything in good working condition and helps prevent germs from spreading. A computer is designed to run in a room average temperature. High temperatures can make your computer slow and sluggish and dirt will clog up inside your computer. Cooling system in your computer is very important. Without a good cooling system in time the dust will store inside your computer such as in your computer case, heat sinks and motherboard. Cleaning theRead MoreDescription And Description Of A Computer2309 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesName Picture Use Communicating Motherboard All of the main components in a computer connect to the motherboard the board allows all the things on it to computer to communicate. This board contains the Northbridge and the Southbridge. The Northbridge controls the main communications on the board between the ram, CPU and PCI-e. The Southbridge communicates with PCI, SATA and things like USB and audio. CPU The central processing unit does all the calculations to process the data that is requested